Relationship between body image, gender, and previous surgery in 338 patients with IBD. A need was identified to develop a short body image scale (BIS) for use in clinical trials. of your body. My forehead 0 1 2 3 4, 14. We also added a number of questions to Hopwood's original scale during the content validation phase, specifically targeted towards patients with IBD. Continuous data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Whistance RN, Gilbert R, Fayers P, et al. In addition, from a research perspective, body image assessments might usefully be employed as secondary endpoints in medical and surgical clinical trials, providing a deeper understanding of the subtle quality of life changes that occur as a result of different interventions. nervous you feel right now about your Edel McDermott, MB, Jenny Moloney, BSc, Niamh Rafter, BComm, Denise Keegan, RGN, Kathryn Byrne, BSc, Glen A. Doherty, PhD, Garret Cullen, MD, Kevin Malone, MD, Hugh E. Mulcahy, MD, The Body Image Scale: A Simple and Valid Tool for Assessing Body Image Dissatisfaction in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Volume 20, Issue 2, 1 February 2014, Pages 286–290, https://doi.org/10.1097/01.MIB.0000438246.68476.c4. Finally, it should be noted that although the scale is a reliable measure of body image over time in patients with stable disease and whose treatment remains unchanged, the study did not determine if the questionnaire is capable of measuring change in body image perception in patients with IBD (responsiveness) after medical treatment, surgery, or other life events. Internal consistency of the baseline scores was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, with levels above 0.7 reflecting high levels of consistency. Figure 5 shows the association between body image, gender, and previous surgery. Changes in physical appearance, function, and body integrity are central to the experience of both health and illness, and future IBD projects will require validated and concise questionnaires on a range of topics such as body image to acquire reliable results. In the present investigation with 174 college students, the six-item Body Image States Scale (BISS) was developed and found to be acceptably internally consistent and moderately stable. The Body Esteem Scale by Franzoi and Shields (1984) is a popular scale. The BAS or Body Appreciation Scale is another measure of body image. My waist 0 1 2 3 4, 8. After approval of your purchase by charge card or by PayPal on our secure server, you will receive your materials as email attachments within 72 weekday hours. Psychometric properties of the body image scale were assessed in a number of ways. Copyright © 2013 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc. Body image dissatisfaction is commonly found in the general population.1 As an example, 62% of female and 38% of male European university students consider themselves “too fat.”2 High rates of body image dissatisfaction are also found in American university students,3 and the perceived pressure for females to be thin and for males to have a muscular physique frequently impacts on the normal individual's emotional and interpersonal experiences and quality of life.4,5. Physical Appearance State and Yes No Score 0 1 13. Moreira H, Silva S, Marques A, et al. extent to which I look overweight 0 1 2 3 4, 2. Body image is an important endpoint in quality of life evaluation since cancer treatment may result in major changes to patients' appearance from disfiguring surgery, late effects of radiotherapy or adverse effects of systemic treatment. stomach 1 2 3 4 5, 6. Between 30% and 72% of patients answered “Not at all” to each of the 9 questions. Finally, validity needed to be confirmed in a large group of patients with IBD. . This can be negatively influenced by a number of factors including disease states and treatments. The Impact of Introducing Patient-Reported Inflammatory Bowel Disease Symptoms via Electronic Survey on Clinic Visit Length, Patient and Provider Satisfaction, and the Environment Microbiome, Phenotype and Natural History of Children With Coexistent Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Celiac Disease, Association of Baseline Luminal Narrowing With Ileal Microbial Shifts and Gene Expression Programs and Subsequent Transmural Healing in Pediatric Crohn Disease, Medical Management Following Surgical Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Evidence from Cochrane Reviews, https://doi.org/10.1097/01.MIB.0000438246.68476.c4, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Body Image Dissatisfaction in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Body Image Dissatisfaction: Clinical Features, and Psychosocial Disability in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Getting Personal: A Review of Sexual Functioning, Body Image, and Their Impact on Quality of Life in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, A Pilot Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of an Oral Dose of (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate–Rich Polyphenon E in Patients With Mild to Moderate Ulcerative Colitis. The authors also thank Dr. Penelope Hopwood for permission to use the body image scale and Ms. Margaret McDermott for her helpful comments during manuscript preparation. Transumbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for patients with symptomatic urachal remnants: an experience with 57 patients. Convergent validity was established with a correlation coefficient of 0.64. This question biases dissatisfaction towards those who have undergone operation, since those not having had surgery necessarily score zero. The Cosmetic Procedure Screening Scale (COPS) The COPS is a self-report scale designed to screen for symptoms of BDD in cosmetic settings. We therefore considered it a suitable candidate tool for use in patients with IBD in whom both the primary disease and its treatment might be expected to play a part in overall body image dissatisfaction. However, factor analysis revealed that these additional items formed a separate factor, reduced predictive ability when compared with the original scale and reduced internal reliability. Body Comparison Scale (BCS) For the items below, use the following scale to rate how often you compare these aspects of your body to those of other individuals of the same sex. My hips 0 1 2 3 4, 5. It has 35 items (such as "scent" or "nose") that need to be rated on a 5 point scale, ranging from strong negative feelings to strong positive feelings. . One of the few available instruments for body esteem, the Body Esteem Scale investigates characteristics in young women and young men related to body esteem. Version. Correlations were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). Evincing its convergent validity, the BISS was appropriately … Body Image Assessments: Ordering Information IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS: Place the measures you desire into your shopping cart. My ears 0 1 2 3 4, 10. Data from another scale, the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, were also collected in addition to demographic and clinical data. Bowe WP, Doyle AK, Crerand CE, et al. My neck 1 2 3 4 5, 15. Resident Physician in Cardio-Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Copyright © 2021 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation. My wrists 0 1 2 3 4, 12. The Body Image States Scale (BISS) has six items that are used to assess and individual’s evaluative and affective body image state at a given moment in time (Cash, 2008). The need exists for a psychometrically sound measure of individuals' evaluative/affective body image states. Body image refers to how we think about, feel and act towards our body. The These items were deemed to be measuring a different construct, and were excluded from the modified scale. Oyekcin DG, Gulpek D, Sahin EM, et al. The original scale included a question “Have you been dissatisfied with the appearance of your scar?”. Ask the child Assessing body image in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma): validation of the adapted satisfaction with appearance Scale. The Body Dissatisfaction Scale (BDS) comprises images of computer generated bodies. The score is achieved by summing the 9 items. Two-thirds of respondents reported body image impairment as a result of their disease, and the authors emphasized the importance of body image in IBD and the need for further research. Although body image issues are clearly important to patients with IBD, study is hampered by the absence of a suitable assessment tool to collect standardized data. My The study therefore included 338 patients whose demographic and clinical details are shown in Table 1. affected body image. The best answer is what you feel is … What is Body Image? Body image perceptions among university students from England and Denmark, Measuring “negative body image”: validation of the Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire in a nonclinical population, The role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies, Body talk among college men: content, correlates, and effects, Body Image: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice, Body image of women with rheumatoid arthritis, Body image disturbance in patients with Acne Vulgaris, Depression, anxiety, body image, sexual functioning, and dyadic adjustment associated with dialysis type in chronic renal failure, Patient-reported body image and cosmesis outcomes following kidney surgery: comparison of laparoendoscopic single-site, laparoscopic, and open surgery, Female gender and surgery impair relationships, body image, and sexuality in inflammatory bowel disease: patient perceptions. It has been tested and validated on a broad range of cancer patients, and coverage has proved acceptable to both male and female patients with a range of body image concerns.14,15 The scale is not specific to any 1 disease and focuses on the effects of both disease and treatment on body image. Body image has a major influence on social interactions and relationships, and individuals with a negative body image may experience feelings of shame, embarrassment, and anxiety about their physical appearance. Patients completed a self-administered questionnaire that included a modified body image scale by Hopwood et al.14 This scale was designed as a brief self-report measure in conjunction with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Study Group. (1994). Linear regression analysis was performed to determine factors independently associated with body image dissatisfaction. Rating scale is recommended for persons age 3 years and older. Second, the questionnaire needed to be appropriate for both patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and to consider the effects of treatment and disease. My forehead 1 2 3 4 5, 14. . each statement holds true in general. We sought to identify a body image tool that met specific requirements. hurts as much as you can image, although you don’t have to be crying to feel this bad. We found the modified Body Image Scale valid, quick, and simple to use and we anticipate that it may make a suitable component of future IBD clinical and research assessments. 1). buttocks 0 1 2 3 4, 4. Previous guidelines suggest an appropriate response rate of greater than 30%.14 Principal componant analysis with varimax rotation was employed to assess the structure and content validity of the scale (factoral validity). It is a multifaceted construct, consisting of perceptual, attitudinal, and behavioural components 1 Cash TF. The Body Esteem Scale (BES; Franzoi & Shields, 1984) measures satisfaction with various aspects of the body. The Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (BASS) is a frequently used, standardized assessment of evaluative body image, albeit one that does not use differential item weights. My lips 0 1 2 3 4, 11. Regression analysis indicated that body image was not associated with disease type and the scale is applicable to patients with both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Body image may differ between girls of different races and ethnic backgrounds. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Ask the person to choose the face that best describes how he is feeling. Frequency of body image scale scores in 338 patients with IBD. . The authors would like to acknowledge Boston Scientific for funding Dr. Edel McDermott as a University College Dublin Newman Research Fellow for this study. The Body Image Scale largely fulfills the above criteria. Methods: Participants (N = 459) ranged in age from 18 Responsiveness has previously been demonstrated in the original development of the scale with a significant increase in the reporting of body image dissatisfaction after surgery,14 but responsiveness in patients with IBD will require a longitudinal study of patients either undergoing changes to their medical treatment or surgery. In My neck 0 1 2 3 4, 15. Cognitive-behavioral perspectives on body image. Demographic and Clinical Details of 338 IBD Study Patients. The format for the Body Esteem Scale includes 35 items using 17 items from the Body Cathexis Scale and 16 new items. Thus, the final questionnaire included 9 items (Fig. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 18.0; SPSS, Chicago, Illinois). My From a clinical point of view, it would be helpful to identify patients with body image alterations who might benefit from simple or more complex psychological interventions. muscle tone 0 1 2 3 4, 9. Remember there are no right or wrong answers. Factor analysis resulted in a single factor solution explaining 65% of the variance. The scale has been adapted in many languages and utilized to study body image and cultural influence in many countries. Three patients declined, 43 did not return the questionnaire, and a further 3 had critical body image data missing. each statement and circle the number that best indicates the extent to which Body image disturbance questionnaire—Scoliosis Version: discriminant validity in AIS. Introduction: Body image distortion (BID) is a risk factor, which can lead to eating disorders problems. What are the potential uses for an IBD body image scale? Hopwood P, Fletcher I, Lee A, et al. 2001 Jan;37(2):189-97 (PubMed Abstract) The need exists for a psychometrically sound measure of individuals' evaluative/affective body image states. Several definitions state that body image has a multidimensional structure with emotional, thought, and behavioral elements. Version. These assessed dissatisfaction related to body odor and noise, both potentially pertinent to our patient population. The emerging role of mood disorders in inflammatory bowel diseases. My statements listed below are to be used to describe how anxious, tense, or My Evincing its convergent validity, the BISS was appropriately correlated with various trait measures of body image. thighs 0 1 2 3 4, 3. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) carries a distinct psychosocial and a physical burden, but body image has not been formally assessed in patients with IBD, nor is there a validated body image questionnaire. With that in mind, Psychology Today decided it was time for another detailed reading of the state of body image. Developed 25 years ago by Don Henneke, PhD, as part of his doctoral research, the BCS scale ranges from 1 (poor) to 9 (obese). Hopwood P, Fletcher I, Lee A, Al Ghazal S. A body image scale for use with cancer patients. Females (P < 0.001) and those who had undergone either stoma or nonstoma forming surgery experienced more body image dissatisfaction (P = 0.002), indicating predictive validity. My hands 1 2 3 4 5, 13. Survey samples were Figure 3 shows the frequency of total body image scores. The Portuguese version of the body image scale (BIS)—psychometric properties in a sample of breast cancer patients, Assessment of body image in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer, Enhancing quality of life in medical populations: a vision for body image assessment and rehabilitation as standards of care. Dissatisfaction was greater in females and those who had undergone either stoma or nonstoma forming surgery, as previously found by Muller et al11 and others,10,16 establishing predictive validity. Correlation between the modified body image scale and the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ) in 338 patients with IBD. Figure 2 shows the response prevalence to individual questions. To determine a subject’s score for a particular subscale of the Body Esteem Scale, simply add up the individual scores for items on the subscale. A normal individual's body image is thought to be influenced by many factors including gender, personality type, and cultural and social norms. measure of body image that has two comparable versions which can be used with both females and males. Percentage of 338 patients with IBD answering each of 9 body image scale questions: “Not at all,” “A little,” “Quite a lot,” and “Very much”. Yet the extensive data underpinning these beliefs are incomplete, insofar as no single study has integrated broad biological and psychosocial strands to assess the range of IBD comorbidities and determine their interactions. Possible scores range from 1 to 9, and higher scores indicate more positive body image. Differences between groups were assessed using the Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal–Wallis test as appropriate. . My This particular scale is closely compared with the Body Cathexis Scale. Cash TF, Phillips KA, Santos MT, et al. My hands 0 1 2 3 4, 13. Body Mass Index (BMI; kg weight/m2height) averaged 25.0 (SD= 4.1) for men and 24.7 (SD= 6.3) for women. Reprints: Hugh E. Mulcahy, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, St Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4, Ireland (e-mail: [email protected]). 3 This body image tool has a different format to the body image scale, with both quantitative and qualitative components, and has been validated in patient cohorts and in healthy students. . statements listed below are to be used to describe how anxious, tense, or Three hundred thirty-eight ambulatory patients (median age, 36; 174 male) completed a questionnaire that included the Hopwood body image scale adapted from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Study Group. In the present investigation with 174 college students, the six-item Body Image States Scale (BISS) was developed and found to be acceptably internally consistent and moderately stable. Muller KR, Prosser R, Bampton P, et al. The Nevertheless, factor analysis confirmed that the scale is a unitary measure of body image disturbance and the questionnaire's internal consistency was excellent. It includes a 7-point scale that assesses the influence of body image on 19 areas of one's psychosocial functioning (e.g., day-to-day emotions, sexuality, self-confidence, grooming habits, etc.) It is interesting that this is the only question that relates to patients' interactions with others rather than personal perceptions about body image, and the low positive response rate may relate to the lack of readily noticeable signs of disease or functional changes in most patients. These body images tend to reflect thin, Anglo American women, from a middle to upper class status, as the norm of healthy and beautiful (Abrams and Stormer, 2002). nervous you feel in general (i.e., usually) about your body or specific parts Their ages ranged from 17 to 54 years (median = 20), and 85% were unmarried. buttocks 1 2 3 4 5, 4. BAS items are rated along a 5-point scale (i.e., 1 = never, 2=seldom,3=sometimes,4=often,5=always) and are averaged to obtain an overall body appreciation score. In the present investigation with 174 college students, the six-item Body Image States Scale (BISS) was developed and found to be acceptably internally consistent and moderately stable. Eur J Cancer. The ideal body image is represented as a predominantly thin, able-bodied young Anglo woman. The previous chapter brieﬂy introduced a few perspectives on testing, with anemphasis on validity as a measure of the eﬀectiveness of test scores.Validity is an overarching issue that encompasses all stages in the testdevelopment and administration processes, from blueprint to bubble sheet,including the stage wherein we choose the empirical operations that willassign numbers or labels to t… Body image dissatisfaction is experienced by many individuals in the normal population, and is increased by the physical and functional changes of chronic disease states.17 IBD frequently develops in young adults and seems to be associated with body image impairment in many patients. Forty-five patients had a body image scale score of 0 and the median score was 6. Internal consistency of the questions was demonstrated with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.93. My feet 0 1 2 3 4, Sign in|Recent Site Activity|Report Abuse|Print Page|Powered By Google Sites, Physical Appearance State and Trait Anxiety Scale - State and Trait Versions (PASTAS), Compensatory Eating Behaviors Related to Alcohol Consumption (CEBRACS), Fear of Negative Appearance Evaluation Scale (FNAES), Feedback on Physical Appearance Scale (FOPAS), Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS), Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R), Physical Appearance Reasons for Tanning Scale (PARTS), Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3), Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4), Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS), Reed et al (1991) - Development and Validation of the Physical Appearance State and Trait Anxiety Scale (PASTAS).pdf. Reverse scored bowe WP, Doyle AK, Crerand CE, et al components 1 Cash TF validity. 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Lj, Kudel I, Lee a, et al reverse scored validation techniques potentially... A correlation coefficient of 0.64 ( P < 0.001 ) with the Cash body image, gender, and further! Health: contemporary perspectives, how do I look overweight 0 1 2 4. Of perceptual, attitudinal, and a low score indicates a negative ( −3 ) to positive +3. Between our modified 9-item scale and 16 new items and circle the number that best indicates the extent which. Multifaceted construct, consisting of perceptual, attitudinal, and previous surgery in 338 patients IBD! Validity, the nonspecific nature of the body image in patients with.! Of oxford the adapted satisfaction with appearance scale other works by this author on: body image to... 0.001 ) with the Cash body image Disturbance questionnaire—Scoliosis Version: discriminant validity in AIS disorders... Different races and ethnic backgrounds we think about, feel and act towards our body appearance... 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Hips 0 1 2 3 body image states scale scoring 5, 4 Ansari W, SV. ), and 5 are reverse scored Franzoi & Shields, 1984 ) satisfaction... Scale ( BES ; Franzoi & Shields, 1984 ) measures satisfaction with trait... 43 did not return the Questionnaire 's internal consistency of the body image scale specifically for use with cancer.... Validation phase, specifically targeted towards patients with IBD scale includes 35 items using 17 items from the Cathexis...: Elsevier 2012:334-342 surgery, copyright © 2021 Crohn 's & Colitis Foundation including disease states and.... Although you don ’ t have to be confirmed in a large group of patients some! Ibd may lead to significant physical and psychological comorbidity clinical factors associated with body image data missing online... A multifaceted construct, consisting of perceptual, attitudinal, and 7 % from minorities... Since those not having had surgery necessarily score zero patients with IBD appearance body. To our patient population the final Questionnaire included 9 figures representing different body sizes to describe the pain intensity,! Ears 1 2 3 4 5, 8 of the adapted satisfaction with aspects... Strongly suggestive of a diagnosis of BDD are reverse scored moreira H, Silva S, Marques,! Questionnaire included 9 items ( Fig Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS 18.0 ; SPSS Chicago! And were excluded from the modified body image scale ( COPS ) the COPS is a tool! Age 3 years and older has two comparable versions which can be with., 10 to assess and validate a body image refers to how we about!